No visa is required to travel to Canada if you are a US citizen or a green card holder (permanent resident). If you are planning to visit Canada you must carry the following documents.
A valid passport from your home country, or a US passport if you are a US citizen
A valid green card if you are a permanent resident
US green card holders are considered permanent residents and they can travel to Canada without a visa.
Traveling to Canada via land, sea, or flight?
Traveling to Canada by driving is relatively easier than a flight if you are a green card holder. The unique relationship between Canada and US has led to special immigration treatment for Canadian and US citizens, and permanent residents.
Related post: How to apply for B1/B2 visa for parents?
You still need to carry a valid travel document like a passport from your home country and a green card if you are not a US citizen. Green card holders can not have US passports. Once you get US citizenship you can just travel with a US passport. You don't need a travel visa to cross the border.
Electronic Travel Authorization (eTA)
If you want to travel by air, then you would need one additional document which is Electronic Travel Authorization (eTA). You can file it online from the following link.
Canada immigration: Electronic Travel Authorization
How long can you stay in Canada?
You can stay up to 6 months and if needed you can further request an extension. You can not work or study in Canada during this stay.
How to get an eTA?
eTA is like a travel visa which you can apply for online. It's pretty simple to get. You just need your valid passport, and a valid email address and you need to pay a minimal fee of $7 (Canadian dollars). You can pay via debit or credit card, there are plenty of options.
Canada immigration: Online eTA application
This fee might change in the future but as of today, it's just this amount. Once you get eTA it's valid for a maximum of 5 years or if your passport has early expiry then the passport expiry date whichever comes first.
Make sure you fill in the passport number correctly while filling out the form. After getting the eTA cross check your passport number on the eTA. If it's incorrect then reapply otherwise you will not be allowed to board a Canadian flight. It's always better to check these details in advance instead of just before boarding the flight.
Non-US Citizens and GC holders
If you are neither a US citizen nor a green card holder like H1B, L, J, M, etc.. type visa holder then you would need a visa to travel to Canada. To work and study you would further need a different type of visa.
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